The F-1 nonimmigrant category was created by 101(a)(15)(F) of the Immigration and Nationality Act. An F-1 student is a nonimmigrant who is pursuing a full course of study to achieve a specific education or professional objective at an academic institution in the United States [U.S.]. International students in F-1 status make up the majority of international students in most academic and language programs at the University of Iowa and in the U.S.
The J Exchange Visitor category was developed to "increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries by means of education and cultural exchanges." Students in J-1 are often part of an exchange agreement, or may be participating in a program funded by the U.S. government, foreign government, or international organization.